Safety of Cyanide in Cyanocobalamin

Due to some articles going around the Internet, many people have written me asking whether vitamin B12 supplements in the form of cyanocobalamin are safe due to the cyanide content. Because so many people have asked, I have updated the page Side Effects of B12 Supplements of Vitamin B12: Are You Getting It? with the following information:

The safety of cyanocobalamin has raised concerns due to the fact that cyanide is a component of cyanocobalamin, and the cyanide molecule is removed from cyanocobalamin when used by the body’s cells. Cyanide is also found in many fruits and vegetables and so humans are always ingesting small amounts of cyanide, and like in most fruits and vegetables, the amount of cyanide in cyanocobalamin is considered to be physiologically insignificant.

According to the European Food Safety Authority, “Data of from a Norwegian dietary survey show that the average and high (97.5th percentile) daily intake of [cyanide] among consumers amounts to respectively 95 and 372 micrograms/person or 1.4 and 5.4 micrograms/kg bw/day (7).” The amount of cyanide in a 1,000 microgram cyanocobalamin is 20 micrograms.

Table 1 contains some additional numbers regarding cyanide amounts in cyanocobalamin for comparison purposes.

Table 1. Cyanide Content of Cyanocobalamin
molecular weight of vitamin B12 1,355 g/mol
molecular weight of cyanide 27 g/mol
Percentage of cyanide in vitamin B12 by weight 2.0%
Amount of cyanide in 1,000 micrograms of cyanocobalamin 20 micrograms
Minimal Risk Level for oral cyanide4, a 0.05 mg/kg of body weight per day
Minimal Risk Level for oral cyanide for 140 lb person 3,175 micrograms/day
Percentage of Minimal Risk Level in 1,000 micrograms of cyanocobalamin 0.6%
Lethal dose of cyanide5 0.5 to 3.0 mg/kg of body weight
Lower end of lethal dose of cyanide for 140 lb person 31,750 micrograms
Percentage of lethal dose in 1,000 micrograms of cyanocobalamin 0.06%
aMinimal Risk Level do not assess cancer risk (6).

In summary, the amount of cyanide in 1,000 micrograms of cyanocobalamin is about .6% of the amount that is thought to be the lower level that causes harm.

References

See Side Effects of B12 Supplements.

Thank you, Ginny, for sending some of the research!

63 Responses to “Safety of Cyanide in Cyanocobalamin”

  1. Bruce Poon Says:

    Not to mention that DEVA and others have started to provide B12 supplements based on methylcobalamin instead of cyanycobalamin.

    Great article. Cheers

  2. rick Says:

    Given this info, doesn’t it seem reasonable to recommend an upper daily limit of cyanocobalamin in qualifying the “no upper limit” for B12?

  3. Jack Norris RD Says:

    Rick,

    I never recommend more than 2,000 micrograms of cyanocobalamin per day which would be well short of any theoretical upper limit due to cyanide poisoning, I would think. I try not to be in the business of setting upper limits.

  4. Jack Norris RD Says:

    Bruce,

    Cyanocobalamin has an advantage over methyl- in that it is more stable and it’s generally thought that it requires much more methyl- from supplements to equal the same amount of cyanocobalamin. One person wrote me saying:

    “I’d been taking 500 mcg of methylcobalamin for years, not knowing that the B12 dosages so often cited (daily 25 – 100 mcg) are just for cyanocobalamin. So, about a week ago I started taking 1000-2000 mcg of methylcobalamin instead of just 500 mcg, and I feel a difference!”

    Of course, it could be a placebo. More info can be found here: http://veganhealth.org/b12/noncyanob12

  5. Martin Says:

    Thank you. The new page will be very useful to link to when the topic comes up in online discussions.

  6. Jack Norris RD Says:

    From a reader:

    Thanks for your excellent post on this topic. I’d add that the cyanide is not a problem as long as kidney function is adequate to handle excretion appropriately. I understand as renal function declines, this may become an issue.

  7. Betty Says:

    What do you mean when you said that the fellow whom you quoted above could be experiencing a benefit from the placebo effect. I mean, really. To follow this logically, all supplements and drugs, too, should be fake, consisting of inexpensive, neutral substances: with sufficient faith, induced in us by advertising, we will experience relief from our symptoms.

    It looks to me as if cyano VS methyl is 6 of one and 1/2 a dozen of the other.

  8. Jack Norris RD Says:

    Betty,

    The placebo effect can be very powerful. That doesn’t mean that it can overcome any ailment or that drugs and supplements never work. I don’t know if, in this case, it was or it wasn’t.

  9. theveganscientist Says:

    Awhile ago, I compared the amount of cyanide from 25µg of cyanocobalamin to 2tbspoons of flax seeds based on data taken from this paper:

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308814601003132

    140ppm (µg/g) x 20g Flaxseed = 2800µg in 2Tbsp Flax Seed
    In 25µg Cyanocobalamin 25µg x 27g/mol/1355g/mol = 0.5µg

    So the amount in 2tablespoons of flax seed is over 5600x the amount in 25µg of cyanocobalamin. Funny, the same people who fear cyanocobalamin (raw foodists in particular) are the same people who make an effort to eat lots of flax seeds.

    Even at 1000µg dose, the cyanide in cyanocobalamin is 140x less than 2 tablespoons of flax seeds.

  10. theveganscientist Says:

    The various forms of B12 vitamers are really more or less a marketing ploy (IMO) as the non cyano B12’s sold in the US (methyl and dibencozide) are marketed as “superior” because they are the co-enzyme forms used in the body/

    They break down in the presence of water and/light light to produce hydroxocobalamin which is still bioactive, and is used in some USP injectable solutions, but is not a co-enzyme form, so doesn’t have the same marketing appeal. In the EU, you can find the hydoxocobalamin form for OTC use.

    I’m surprised some US companies haven’t started to sell the hydroxo form as an cyanide poisoning antidote as the cyano group has a very strong affinity for the corrin ring, which explains it’s stability. We used to boil it out of food matrices without any loss.

  11. Peter Says:

    Hi Jack,

    A story about B12 supplementation on ABC Radio National today.
    I thought you might find this of use. Here is the link;
    http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/healthreport/vitamin-b12-supplementation/3823160

  12. Eselpee Says:

    What is the role that intestinal bacteria play in providing vitamin B12 to their host?

    What factors might be causing symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency in people who regularly consume animal products?

  13. Jack Norris RD Says:

    Eselpee,

    > What is the role that intestinal bacteria play in providing vitamin B12 to their host?

    For humans, not much. Here is info on other animals: http://veganhealth.org/b12/animal

    > What factors might be causing symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency in people who regularly consume animal products?

    A rare genetic inability to efficiently absorb or metabolize vitamin B12, and the inability to cleave vitamin B12 from proteins in animal foods as people age.

  14. Anne Says:

    The word Cyano does not mean Cyanide; the word Cyano means: Blue Green Algae or Blue Green Bacteria; Vitamin B12 is found in Blue Green Algae; Cyanide is found in Blue Green Algae; Kyanos is Greek for Blue Green in color…

    So Cyanide is a Cyano
    but NOT all Cyanos are Cyanide;
    so Cyano Cobalamin is not about Cyanide; Cyano Cobalamin is about Vitamin B12 which is derived from HydroxlyCobalamin

    the only reason Cyano Cobalamin MIGHT have trace Cyanide is because the activated charcoal they use to purify Hydroxyl cobalamin might have trace cyanide…not harmful in Vit. B12;

    Summary: Cyano means Cyano Blue Green Bacteria or Algae
    Cyano does not mean cyanide; Cyano means “Blue Green

    so the fear of cyandie in CyanoCobalamin if highly unfounded !

  15. Jack Norris RD Says:

    Anne,

    I appreciate you setting the record straight regarding the prefix “cyano”. But, all cyanocobalamin does include a cyanide component (or “ligand” as it’s technically called). As I mention in this post, it is only 2% of the cyanocobalamin by weight and except for in people who have cyanide metabolism issues, is toxicologically insignificant.

  16. Anne Says:

    I’m surprised some US companies haven’t started to sell the hydroxo form as an cyanide poisoning antidote as the cyano group has a very strong affinity for the corrin ring, which explains it’s stability. We used to boil it out of food matrices without any loss.

    Anne’s comment: FDA approved Cyano-Kit 2007 is HydroxylCobalamin @ 5 mgs. given by a “professional only; this is used mostly for “smoke inhalation which has Cyanide”; this is why tobacco smokers are sometimes deficient in B12 because Tobacco Smoke creates Cyanide in the system…ar

  17. Anne Says:

    But, all cyanocobalamin does include a cyanide component (or “ligand” as it’s technically called)…

    comment : I thought all cyanocobalamin contained a “Cyano” Ligand which is a Blue Green Bacteria Ligand which is derived when the Hydroxyl is pushed thru the Charcoal column

    questions: Does Cobalt contain natural cyanide ?
    does blue green alage (CYANO IS KYANOS FOR BLUE GREEN IN GREEK); Where does the Vitamin B12 get the Cyanide:
    a. from the hydroxyl B12? b. or from the Activated charcoal ?

    I know Cobalamin searches for and seeks out “cyanide…thnx!

  18. Anne Says:

    summary: the prefix “Cyano” before another word does not mean Cyanide; Cyano is NOT an abbreviation or slang for Cyanide; CYANO means “The Nitrile Group; as “green plants; and my concern is: if people think Cyano cobalmin means cyanide cobalmin then people will not use the purifed form of vitmain B12 which is CYANO (Blue Green Bacteria) not cyanide; and then the anti nuttient people will have won because a Deficiency of Vitmain B12 can be a chronic prob.

  19. Anne Says:

    PS from what I have read (I have been an OLV for 45 years !)

    Cyano (blue green bacteria) Cobalamin is almost identical in molecular structure to “Purifed Liver estracts (where Vitmain B122 was discvored in 1947); yet Cyano Cobalamin is Vegan!

    I recommend the Sublingual Vitmain B12; better uptake…imo !

  20. Jack Norris RD Says:

    Anne,

    > Does Cobalt contain natural cyanide ?

    Cobalt is a mineral and thus it does not contain anything more than protons, neutrons, and electrons.

    I do not know how the cyanide in cyanocobalamin is added to the cobalamin, but by all accounts that I can find, it is indeed cyanide. If you have proof to the contrary, feel free to post it. Otherwise, I don’t think I’m going to post any further comments about it.

  21. Sharon Says:

    I bought a bottle of B12 (Methylcobalamin) would your recommendations change vs cyanycobalamin?

  22. Jack Norris RD Says:

    > I bought a bottle of B12 (Methylcobalamin) would your recommendations change vs cyanocobalamin?

    Yes, methylcobalamin should be taken at 1,000 micrograms per day. 1,000 micrograms = 1 mg.

  23. Sharon Says:

    Jack,

    I been following Dr. Mcdougall recommendations in regards to B12. Dr. Mcdougall recommendations are a 1 weekly dose of 500mcg per week of B12 of methylcobalamin because it has better absorption. When i came across your site your recommendations are totally different so i began to research and realize every doctor and dietitian has a different recommendation.

    Here are some of the recommendations i came across:

    1 dose of 500mcg per week
    1 dose of 500mcg per day
    1dose of 1000mcg per week
    1dose of 1000mcg twice a week
    1dose of 1000mcg per day
    1 dose of 60mcg per day that is included in a multivitamin(Dr. fuhrman gentle care

    I been feeling a bit disappointed and confuse. Why is it that most doctors and dietitians don’t agree in just one universal dose for B12?

    Thanks for your help.

  24. Jack Norris RD Says:

    Sharon,

    Some people are recommending doses to prevent overt B12 deficiency and others are recommending higher doses to minimize homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels. I’m in the latter group. Here is a letter written to the vegan community that was signed by numerous dietitians, doctors, and organizations. If you want a suggestion that comes from a wide range, you might want to go with theirs:

    http://veganhealth.org/articles/everyvegan

    This article also appears on the UK Vegan Society website:

    http://www.vegansociety.com/lifestyle/nutrition/b12.aspx

  25. TheVeganScientist Says:

    In (bio) Chemistry the cyano prefix is used to name the CN- functional group, just as acetyl and formyl are used to identify the CH3(C=O)O- and H(C=O)O- functional groups respectively.

    Even though they too are derived from other words (Latin Aceto =Vinegar and formica = ant) t’s just a name for a particular functional group.

    In the case of cyanocobalamin, the CN ligand is bound to the Cobalt atom in the corrin ring. The only difference, structurally between the various vitamers is the ligand bound to the central Cobalt atom.

    When Cyanocobalamin is converted to methylcobalamin and cobamide in the body, the CN group gets knocked out, but most likely it will find an iron atom to cling to somewhere and at such low exposure limits won’t have any negative affects on the body.

  26. TheVeganScientist Says:

    btw, The Cyanide is added to the broth at the end fermentation to convert all the various vitamers into the most stable vitamer, cyanocobalamin. This makes it easier to extract,

    This is done strictly for stability purposes. Like I said previously, we used to boil it out of food matrices.

  27. Tracie Says:

    I was sure I read somewhere on your site about extremely different doses for b12 depending if one is taking methylcobalamin vs cyanocobalamin. I would think this would be an important thing to note, but I’m having a very difficult information finding it anywhere on the web.

  28. Jack Norris RD Says:

    Tracie,

    I don’t have official recommendations for methylcobalamin, only cyanocobalamin, but there is more info on other forms here:

    http://veganhealth.org/b12/noncyanob12

    And I just updated my recommendations to indicate that I’m only referring to cyanocobalamin:

    http://veganhealth.org/articles/dailyrecs

  29. Anne Says:

    hello again

    I understand the Cynadie is formed when the basic Vitamin B12 (grown in a lab with special bacteria) is “pushed throught the charcoal column” to Purify the Vitamin B12″ somehow the charcoal creates Cyandie reside; the cynadie is not “added !

    the Cynadie is a natural process of manufacturaing Vit. B12…!

    ps did you know some people consider “cyanide” to be “a nutrients or a medicine” if used in proper amounts; this is because Cyandie has been shown to destory some germs…

    there are many types of cyandie; the cyandie found in peach ptis; flax seeds is not the type of Cyanide which is dangerrous!

    ]summary if you do not take some type of Vitamin B12; you can come down with “pseudo alzhmers and SCD (sub acute degenration of the spinal cord

    so i would rish a little cyanide to prevent aformention diseases!

    so I would risk a little cyandie to prevent SCD (sub acute degenration of the spinal cord ) because SDC is terrible AND VITAMIN B12 IS THE ONLY KNOWN CURE FOR SCD…thnx!

  30. Tracie Says:

    Thanks!

    I finally found the page I was thinking of @ http://www.theveganrd.com/2010/11/recommended-supplements-for-vegans.html. She has your site listed on her blogroll. Quite a search to refind it tho. Sorry about my bad editing in my above post but looks like you sorted that out.

  31. theveganscientist Says:

    Anne, I believe you are confusing the steps in the process. Cyanide, albeit in very minute quantities, is added to the broth and THEN the broth is filtered. The charcoal is a standard method of purification similar to a britta filter to remove particulates(most likely the biomass itself). Charcoal is relatively inert and would require extreme conditions to produce cyanide, which is a reductive product and not something that readily forms in an oxygen rich environment under typical temperatures & pressures (thankfully)

    Wikipedia has a good description of the process:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanocobalamin#Production

    “Fermentation by a variety of microorganisms gives a mixture of methyl-, hydroxo-, and adenosylcobalamin. These compounds are converted to cyanocobalamin by addition of potassium cyanide in the presence of sodium nitrite and heat.”

  32. theveganscientist Says:

    Cyanide has been shown to kill some germs for the same reason it kills humans:
    It binds to Iron containing enzymes in a cell, specifically Cytochrome-C Oxidase
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytochrome_c_oxidase.

    This does not make it a medicine and was a dangerous form of quackery in the 70s & 80s that resulted in several deaths.

    http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/32/5/1121.full.pdf

    http://www.cancer.org/Treatment/TreatmentsandSideEffects/ComplementaryandAlternativeMedicine/PharmacologicalandBiologicalTreatment/laetrile

    Cyanide is cyanide. When it is a free ion it behaves the same irrespective of its source and in sufficient quantities can kill. There are several deaths each year (mostly children) from accidental cyanide poisoning from eating enough uncooked foods that contain cyanogenic glycosides. For example:

    http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2005-03/10/content_423641.htm

    Cyanogenic glycocides are thought to be a protective mechanism of a plant against animals eating its seeds. The cyanide is only released when the seed is crushed and the two parts (enzyme + glycoside), which are normally separated in the cell, are brought together. Cooking destroys the enzyme.

    In some foods, there are some metal ions (especially iron) around that the free cyanide will bind to before it gets to cells in the body, which can deactivate some of it. Once it is deactivated it is far less toxic, but also relatively inert and offers no medical benefit:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prussian_blue#Safety

    Most of the make believe around “natural” is from people who don’t want to believe nature is indifferent to the human life and kills as much as it sustains.

  33. rick Says:

    So cyanide is added to (a) kill bacteria, and (b) stabilize the b12 molecule. Is this correct? The stabilization is important to help extract the b12 in the production process.

    Does this stabilization also serve to increase the shelf life? In other words, does cyanocobalamin have a longer shelf life than methylcobalamin?

    Is that why recommendations for methylcobalamin are sometimes higher than for cyanocobalamin, to factor in that the users will be administering a significantly lower dose of the methylcobalamin by the time that they consume it than when it was manufactured, whereas the cyanocobalamin dose will be relatively higher upon administration?

  34. Jack Norris RD Says:

    Rick,

    > In other words, does cyanocobalamin have a longer shelf life than methylcobalamin?

    That’s my understanding.

    > Is that why recommendations for methylcobalamin are sometimes higher than for cyanocobalamin,

    Yes.

  35. Anne Says:

    NORI SEAWEED: The purple laver contained five types of biologically active vitamin B12 compounds (cyano-, hydroxo-, sulfito-, adenosyl- and methylcobalamin), in which the vitamin B12 coezymes (adenosyl- and methylcobalamin) comprised about 60 % of the total vitamin B12. http://www.nih.com

    So this proves Cyano Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) is in nature…”
    ps I think you misunderstood me Jack: i said there is no Cyanide in CyanoCobalamin because Cyano = Nitriles which are plants usually blue green algae or bacteria; I did not advocate natrual cyanide synthetic cyanide or any other type !!

  36. Jack Norris RD Says:

    Anne,

    Your link doesn’t go to anything about nori. It is possible that cyanocobalamin is in nature, but it does have a cyanide molecule attached – it doesn’t matter what the term “cyano” means. Also, I’m not putting through most of your comments as they are simply restatements of the same thing over and over again.

    Here is a diagram of cyanocobalamin: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanocobalamin The cyanide molecule is the CN attached to the cobalt atom in between the 4 nitrogens towards the top, middle of the diagram. And here you can see that CN is cyanide: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanide

    I’m not going to put through any further comments arguing that cyanocobalamin doesn’t contain cyanide.

  37. Jack Norris RD Says:

    For anyone who might be interested, Anne sent me this link off list showing that the purple laver had cyanocobalamin: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11430774

  38. Anne Says:

    http://www.theveganrd.com/2010/11/recommended-supplements-for-vegans.html. thanks Tracie !!!

  39. Anne Says:

    everything originates with Green Blue algae; this i why Clams have high Vitamin B12; they thrive on Sea Algae!
    clams have the most B12 ! (USDA Clams Nutrient Database

  40. theveganscientist Says:

    Most likely it’s b/c clams sit at the bottom where poop and other animals solids end up. If you want “natural b12″ you can make poop extracts. I’d rather take a 2cent vitamin supplement.

  41. noname Says:

    can anyone tell me? If I put potassium cyanide 800 mg. to the vitamin B12 ( in the energy drink ) who is win ?

  42. Jack Norris RD Says:

    noname,

    No idea what you mean.

  43. Livia Says:

    “1.4 and 5.4 micrograms/kg bw/day”

    Does this information also apply for infants?
    Is there any evidence infants should rather take methylcobalamin instead of cyano?

  44. Jack Norris RD Says:

    Livia,

    Infants should be getting their B12 through breast milk or formula, especially the first 6 months. Here are my recommendations for older than 6 months:

    http://veganhealth.org/articles/dailyrecs

    > Is there any evidence infants should rather take methylcobalamin instead of cyano?

    I’ve never seen any.

  45. jriley Says:

    From the info I get in this article cyanide is cyanide (shrinks ur brain)why does the stuff have to be present in B12. Have U folks heard of methylcobalamin. Not mentioned above.

  46. Jack Norris RD Says:

    jriley,

    We discuss methylcobalamin on this site *all the time*! Example: http://jacknorrisrd.com/?p=3383

    BTW, did you mean to make your email address public? If not, let me know and I’ll remove this comment.

  47. vsheline Says:

    Costco now sells economical Kirkland brand B-12: cherry flavored sublingual tablets (300 per bottle), Methylcobalamin form, 5000 mcg.

    On the bottle it says, “Suggested Use: Dissolve one tablet daily, under tongue for 30 seconds, then swallow.”

    Could taking that much lead to any problems?

  48. vsheline Says:

    The label on the bottle of Kirkland brand B-12 does include the following warning:

    “WARNING: Pregnant or nursing women, individuals taking medication(s), or persons who have a health condition should consult their physician before using this product. KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN. Store at 15 to 30 C (59 to 86 F).”

  49. Jack Norris RD Says:

    vsheline,

    I am not aware of 5,000 micrograms a day of methylcobalamin causing problems. Perhaps you should start out breaking the tablet in half. That way, if you have a rare reaction, it will be to less of a dose.

  50. Yaffa Barelkovsky Says:

    Dear Jack Norris,
    I am a 75 year old woman, suffering from neuropathy. Quite severe. From your research – does it seem that ANY form of vit B-12 could be significantly helpful, if so: which one, which dose & how many times per day. Do you have an opinion or experience with using the treatment suggested by a company called:
    neuropathytreatmentgroup.com?
    Thanks and take care,
    Yaffa Barelkovsky.

  51. Jack Norris RD Says:

    Yaffa,

    I’m sorry to hear about your neuropathy. It sounds like you need to see a doctor about this. If your B12 levels are not deficient then B12 is probably not going to help. People with severe B12 deficiencies have succeeded at raising them in clinical trials using 1,000 micrograms two times per day of cyanocobalamin.

  52. Anne Says:

    to Jack Noris: SCD is a “disease of deficiency of Vit. B12; my comment is: (Sub-Acute degeneration of the Spine)
    CN- is Nitrile where as -CN is Cynaide; recheck your diagram
    Subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord, also known as Lichtheim’s disease,[1][2] refers to degeneration of the posterior and lateral columns of the spinal cord as a result of vitamin B12 deficiency (most common), copper deficiency[3] or vitamin E deficiency[citation needed]. It is usually associated with pernicious anemia.
    Patients present with weakness of legs, arms, trunk, tingling and numbness that progressively worsens. Vision changes and change of mental state may also be present. Bilateral spastic paresis may develop and pressure, vibration and touch sense are diminished. A positive Babinski sign may be seen.[citation needed] Prolonged deficiency of vitamin B12 leads to irreversible nervous system damage. HIV-associated vacuolar myelopathy can present with a similar pattern of dorsal column and corticospinal tract demyelination.[citation needed]

    If someone is deficient in vitamin B12 and folic acid, the vitamin B12 deficiency must be treated first to avoid precipitating subacute combined degeneration of the cord (giving folic acid first will turn the remaining B12 into methylcobalamin which will not be able to participate in fatty acid metabolism).

    Administration of nitrous oxide anesthesia can precipitate subacute combined degeneration in people with subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency, while chronic nitrous oxide exposure can cause it even in persons with normal B12 levels.

    Tests[edit]Serum B12, Malonic Acid, Methylmalonic Acid, Schilling Test, Complete Blood Count- looking for megaloblastic anemia if there is also folic acid deficiency or macrocytic anemia

    Treatment[edit]Therapy with vitamin B12 results in partial to full recovery, depending on the duration and extent of neurodegeneration.

  53. rkg Says:

    Have you seen this biochemistry of cyano /cobalamin (links below) ? Your feedback ?

    http://www.yourhormones.com/faq/nutrition/cyanocobalamin.html

    http://www.scribd.com/doc/38186617/Nitrile-containing-natural-products-F-F-Fleming-Nat-Prod-Rep-1999-16-597-606-DOI-10-1039-A804370A-http-dx-doi-org-10-1039-A804370A

  54. Jack Norris RD Says:

    rkg,

    The first link is what I say in my post above. Not sure why you sent the second link – I took a look but didn’t read it.

  55. Anne Says:

    Hi Jack: thanks for printing my B12 SCD post; about how Vit. B12 prevents SCD

    My comment is to the lady about “Infants and cyanocobalamin”; I have read Infants shoudl Not get CyanoCobalamin; instead should get Methyl or other type; I do not know why this is: I can only guess “Vitamin B12 chelates Cyanide”
    this is why firefighters carry a “Vitamin B12 Hydroxyl Kit” to administer to people if they get “smoke inhalation”; smoke produces Cyanide; Vit. B12 chelates CN.

    so perhaps the Cyanocobalamin would chelate the infants system too much…
    Summary; Infants are the one group of people who shoould not use “CyanoCobalamin”…discuss this with your pediatricain. thanku…Anne usa

  56. Jack Norris RD Says:

    Anne,

    I haven’t seen anything in the scientific literature saying that infants shouldn’t receive cyano. There were some cases in which B12 deficient infants had tremors upon receiving large amounts of cyano-, but the researchers thought that was due to the B12 deficiency correcting itself.

  57. kit Says:

    I have been taking 2000mcg of CyanoCobalamin for the last 27 years. I have neuropathy in the legs, arms, lower back and now my fingers occasionally. At night, when relaxing, my body pretty much tingles all over. I get muscle cramps in my feet and multiple little muscle twitches in my calves on occasion. I have a sore tongue and sometimes tingly lips. When all this came about I also was fatigued (put on low dose thyroid meds and now feel great), my fasting blood sugar was 101 (went on metformin), showed allergies when I have never had any before and now slight unnoticed asthma (doctor diagnosed trying to figure everything out). Multiple brain MRIs were normal, lower back and neck MRI mostly normal. EMGs showed L5/S1 irritation. Now I notice that I catch my toes off and on. Oh I have dry eyes too. For a year I took the other type of B12 and the feet burning, numbness and pin and needles improved at the end of the time. Now I have been back on the CyanoCobalamin for about 6 months and it is all back big time, even in my fingers. I feel like my whole body is revolting. All I get from doctors is it is ideopathic neuropathy. No one wants to try to find out the cause. Could this be along term affect of the B12 and its cyanide component?

  58. Jack Norris RD Says:

    kit,

    > Could this be along term affect of the B12 and its cyanide component?

    I don’t know. I’m sorry to hear about your difficulties. Perhaps you should go back to one of the other forms of vitamin B12 since it seemed to be working for you.

  59. Kit Says:

    I have now that I know the difference between the different b12. I have found the cynicibalamin and methycolbalamin. But that cyanide stuff is used in most everything I find with vitamins added including food.

  60. Jack Norris RD Says:

    Kit,

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanide_poisoning

    You might want to get tested for cyanide poisoning. If you don’t have cyanide poisoning, then cyanocobalamin shouldn’t do any harm to you.

  61. Tim Says:

    Kit,

    I have had chronic cyanide poisoning among other issues. I believe the hydroxycobalamin form of vitamin B12 combines with cyanide to form cyanocobalamin which can pass through safely. Which is why you might get an intravenous dose of hydroxycobalamin for acute cyanide exposure.

    What are you eating? The prime food suspects are things you eat every day or week. For me it was mainly coffee, almonds, flax seeds, and tapioca (boba) combined with little or no shellfish, eggs, or dairy. There were also environmental issues like water/air/food quality and office/household products.

    You might find a doctor that can run an Asyra test on you. If might give you very helpful clues as to what is going on.

  62. Dee Says:

    Hi Jack
    One of the commenters wrote: “In the EU, you can find the hydoxocobalamin form for OTC use.”
    I’d look on veganhealth.org myself, since you may be tiring of this thread, but I don’t see a search field :)
    Thanks
    Dee

  63. Jack Norris RD Says:

    Dee,

    There is a custom search bar towards the top of every page (in the center, under the social media links) on VeganHealth.org. But there isn’t anything on the site about OTC hydroxocobalamin; it’s not something I know much about.

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